When you walk down the High Street if you were to look at labels inside many of the clothes you buy you will see China, Bangladesh and Turkey prominent among others. Between them these three countries supply about 50 per cent of your clothing on the UK High Street, if not more. Prices have been low for the past decade and many retail brands have made substantial profits by sourcing product from these countries. Wage costs have increased in China and put pressure to increase prices charged to European and US Retailers. China itself has sought ways to lower its own cost base by managing complex supply chains with other countries such as Myanmar, Cambodia and Vietnam where labour costs are lower. Bangladesh too has pushed up wage rates although they remain very low. Turkey pays higher wage rates than either of these two countries already but its quality and proximity to Europe with faster supply times keeps it competitive.
However, now it is not just labour costs but worsening exchange rates on imports that will impact the cost and of course push up the prices you pay at the checkout together with inflationary pressure. In future as BREXIT becomes a reality new tariffs may kick in too. The inflation rate measured by the Consumer price Index (CPI) stood at 0.6 per cent in the year to August 2016. The inflation rate for clothing was negative at 1.2 per cent. Is this about to change too, as China, Bangladesh and Turkey seek higher prices for their goods and the exchange rate against world currencies falls?
Figure 1 Consumer Price Index (CPI)
Source: CSO, 2016
As for the GB Pound against the Chinese Yuan that has fallen to 8.21 from a high of 10 just over a year ago. The Bangladesh Taka has fallen from 120 to the pound to 95.5 in the year to September 2016. The Turkish Lira has also fallen from a high of 4.70 in September 2015 to 3.78 in September 2016. These shifts alone will push up UK cost of clothing from these supplier countries.