Fracking is a hydraulic process of extracting energy from geological stores underground particularly gas and oil. The arguments for, suggest that it will add to cheaper sources of energy, is relatively efficient and is sited close to where it is consumed in most cases. Short supply chains and a quick fix to the energy shortages are driving interest. The downside is it requires large quantities of water and chemicals that replace the extracted gas. It is claimed that the process has produced earthquakes and concerns over this aspect remain. The technique has been developed since 1947 and it continues to develop whether it will provide enough energy to keep the lights on is debatable. Many people believe that a return to older sources of extraction and energy generation will be necessary to do that. Germany has invested in coal fired power to keep their lights on. So who’s right?
Most energy produced in developed and developing economies alike still relies mainly on coal. Oil is only number two. So what is the problem with Fracking?
Fracking it has been suggested risks tremors and quakes. However, more importantly it is expensive, not ecologically friendly, non-renewable and warms the planet rather than slow it down. The benefit suggested by proponents of Fracking suggests burning gas emits roughly half of the CO2 that coal would. Research suggests this is not so and the benefits illusory. Pumping water into shale to release trapped gas in the earth releases methane into the atmosphere and this is the problem. Burning coal although releasing sulphur dioxide and black carbon actually cools the planet and offsets the warming effect of the gas it generates by 40 per cent. Fracking would increase warming immediately and take about 100 years to be equivalent to coal.
So is fracking the way to go? The science might suggest not. The potential environmental cost is high while the potential benefits as a solution to medium and longer term energy demand suggest it will make a small contribution to the total energy requirements.